World War II -

World War II -

World War II (1939-1945) Chapter 28 (3 or 4) Totalitarian Governments Nazi Germany Axis

Powers Fascist Italy Imperial Japan Germany Violates Versailles Treaty Stopped Reparation

Payments Re-Built Military Began to Expand Other totalitarian regimes act aggressively Italy Attacks Ethiopia,

1935 Benito Mussolini invades Ethiopia with overpowering force 2,000 Italian troops killed, 275,000 Ethiopians killed

Ethiopia and King Haile Selassie Ethiopia one of few independent nations in Africa 1935 - Italy invaded Ethiopia Ethiopian king, Haile Selassie I, appealed to League of Nations for help (did little oil boycott of Italy which most didnt follow anyway)

Ethiopians tried to fight but weapons were no for armored vehicles, planes and poison gas of Italians In spring of 1936, Mussolini announced Ethiopia was part of Italian Empire Emperor Haile Selassie during his famous speech to the

League of Nations Spanish Civil War (19361939) Leftists Right Wing

Republicans Nationalists Loyal to democratically elected government

Loyal to General Francisco Franco Preferred by Britain and France, though gave very little assistance

Aided by Germany and Italy Germany Occupied the Rhineland (1936) Supposed to remain demilitarized

zone as per the Versailles Treaty Anchluss (1938) Hitler announces union with Austria Austrians do not resist

1938 - Sudetenland Germany took over the Sudetenland (Sept, 1938) Hitler claimed

its the last territory he would take Appeasement Appeasement = The policy of giving in to someone to avoid a conflict League of Nations, specifically Britain and

France, used appeasement against Hitler Munich Pact - The Failure of Appeasement Munich Conference = meeting between British and French leaders and Hitler Hitler promised not to take more land in return for

being allowed to keep land he already took The Munich Pact (1938) The Height of Appeasement British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain

Now we have peace in our time! Herr Hitler is a man we can do Germans Take Czechoslovakia (March, 1939) Violation of Munich Pact

British leaders again do nothing Nazi-Soviet Pact (August, 1939) Hitler makes peace agreement with Soviet Union

Allows Germany to attack Poland without fear of fighting war on eastern front Germany Invades Poland (Sept 1, 1939) and WW2 Begins Blitzkrieg = German

style of attack, Lightning Warfare German troops parade through Warsaw, Poland in October 1939. Meanwhile In Asia

Japan Invades Manchuria, 1931 Japanese Aggression When Japan invaded Manchuria, the League of Nations

condemned the action, which led to Japans withdrawal from the group. League took little action did not recognize Japans

postage stamps The Japanese Invasion of China, 1937 Japanese occupy Beijing and Chinese fight back. A stalemate occurred for the next 8 years

The War In Asia When WW2 broke out in Europe in 1939, Japan joined the Axis powers (called Tripartite Agreement) In the early stages

of war Japan continued to expand Pearl Harbor - Dec. 7, 1941 A date which will live in infamy!

Pearl Harbor, Hawaii As Japan expanded in the Pacific, they knew the one nation in their way would be U.S. Japan thought they could wipe out U.S. with one swift

sneak attack Over 2400 American military were killed in the attack on December 7, 1941 In response, US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan

he American battleships West Virginia and Tennessee under attack at Pearl Harbor. From 1939 to 1942, the Axis Powers Dominated

France Fell Within Weeks in 1940 The Maginot Line WW1 was 2nd time in less than 50 years Germany had invaded

France After WW1, France was determined to ensure this never happened again France constructed a series of steel and concrete fortifications

along its Eastern border, stretching nearly 200 miles long. This was immensely expensive and further weakened the French economy.

The Maginot Line Charles de Gaulle By June of 1940, the Germans entered

Paris France agreed to armistice and was split in half: Northern France = Occupied by Germany

Southern France = Vichy France, technically independent, but really under control of Germans Charles de Gaulle set up the Free French government, with its base in Great

Britain The Free French fought against Germans, often using guerrilla tactics such as blowing up bridges, wrecking trains and cutting telephone and telegraph wires

France Surrenders June, 1940 A Divided France Henri Petain

The French Resistance The Free French The Maquis General Charles

DeGaulle The Battle of Britain, July to October, 1940 Winston Churchill In May of 1940, Winston

Churchill replaced Neville Chamberlain as the prime minister of Britain Churchill had earned himself a reputation of speaking out against the policy of appeasement all throughout the 1930s

Hitler offered a peace negotiation which Churchill refused In response, Hitler ordered his air force, the Luftwaffe to soften up Britain for invasion The Battle of

Britain - 1940 The Battle of Britain is the attempt by the German Luftwaffe to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force (RAF), before a planned sea and airborne invasion of

Britain during World War II. The Battle of Britain Air war conducted by the German Luftwaffe 40,000 British civilians killed in urban

bombing raids, especially in London 40 Blitz Commonly called The Royal Air Force prevents Germans from invading, and Hitler turns toward USSR

Turning Points in World War II Hitler Turns to Russia Battle of Stalingrad: Winter of 1942-1943

German Army Russian Army 1,011,500 men 1,000,500 men

10,290 artillery guns 13,541 artillery guns 675 tanks

894 tanks 1,216 planes 1,115 planes The Battle of Stalingrad

After failing to capture Moscow & Leningrad, Hitler tried one last attack on the city of Stalingrad in the south. After six long months, again, the harsh winter

not only drove the Germans out, but had the Soviets advancing towards Germany. Assault at Stalingrad Red Army soldiers raising the Soviet flag on the Reichstag in Berlin, Germany.

Battle of Midway (June, 1942) U.S. defeated Japan Beginning of U.S. drive to get Japanese out of the islands they had taken in the Pacific The Japanese cruiser Mikuma shortly before sinking.

The Italian Campaign - Operation Torch Europes Soft Underbelly Allies plan assault on

weakest Axis area - North Africa - Nov. 1942-May 1943 The Allies Liberate Rome: June 5, 1944

Italy Surrenders Upon the Allied invasion, Mussolini was forced to resign. His successors first

act was to dissolve the Fascist Party. Clara Petacci (left) and Benito Mussolini (right) hung by their feet after death. D-Day (June 6, 1944)

Gen. Eisenhower Gives the Orders for D-Day [Operation Overlord] Normandy Landing (June 6, 1944)

German Prisoners Higgins Landing Crafts Hitler Commits Suicide April 30, 1945

Cyanide & Pistols The Fhrers Bunker Mr. & Mrs. Hitler V-E Day = April, 1945

The War Ends in the Pacific Tinian Island, 1945 Little Boy

Fat Man Enola Gay Crew Hiroshima August 6, 1945

70,000 killed immediately. 48,000 buildings. destroyed. 100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.

Nagasaki August 9, 1945 40,000 killed immediately. 60,000 injured. 100,000s died of

radiation poisoning Hiroshima after the Bomb 60 The Wars Devastation

35 million deaths The Rape of Nanking Concentration Camps

Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Mass Graves at Bergen-Belsen Postwar Europe

The U.S. & the U.S.S.R. Emerged as the Two th Superpowers of the later 20th Century The Yalta Conference (February, 1945) Roosevelt,

Churchill and Stalin met at a Soviet resort called Yalta Made agreement for Soviets to enter war against Japan once

Germany was defeated The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. The Potsdam Conference (July, 1945) Germany already surrendered,

Japan would soon Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed plans for postwar Europe with much

disagreement The "Big Three" at the Potsdam Conference: Joseph Stalin, Harry Truman, and Winston Churchill. The Creation of the U. N. Postwar Asia

Japan was occupied by the U.S. U.S. wrote new constitution making Japan a democracy

China regained land it lost to Japan, but had a civil war and became communist Colonies returned

to prewar owners throughout Asia (and the world) Korea was split into 2: North Korea (communist)

and South Korea (noncommunist)

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