DECADES X 2 PROJECT BY MATT SUTTON No Child Left Behind (NCLB) 2001 Race to the Top (RTTT) 2009 2000 to Present 2000 - 2002 Gallup Polls Posit Education as Most Important Problem By the 1990s the public was beginning to view the problems with our education system as among the nations most signfiicant issues. 1. Goals 2000 Educate America Act President Bill Clinton supports George H. W. Bushs education policiies by signing this act in March of 1994. 2. Diane Ravitch Publishes Left Back (2000)

Ravitchs influential book criticizes progressive ed. and argues for a more traditional, back to basics approach. 3. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) (2001) George W. Bushs landmark education legislation is signed into law. G. W. Bush/Congress Oppose Bilingual Education in 2001 English acquisition and English-only instruction favored by Congress over the preservation of minority languages. 4. 5. 6. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) Founded (2002) P21 is established to unite business leaders, educators, and policymakers and kick-start a national conversation about 21st-century skills. In the process of their discussions they redefine the concept of literacy (i.e., digital literacy). 2002 - 2003 Reading First Program (2002) Approximately $900 million

in federal appropriations begin to flow down to the state level and fund scientific, research-based reading programs for K-5 children. 1 7. 7. NAREA is Launched (2002) The Reggio Emilia approach is launched in North America to promote the rights of young children and encourage them to learn through discovery with a self-guided curriculum. 8. 8. 9. Zelman v. SimmonsHarris (2002) The U.S. Supreme Court deems school voucher programs constitutional. 10. 9. States Required to Publish Annual Report Cards (2002-03) States and districts are mandated to report various data and prove that they are making Adequate Yearly Porgress (AYP). 10. Higher Education Act is Amended (2003) The act is amended (again) to

help low income students and graduate students access educational opportunities. 11. 1 12. All U.S. Schools are Wired (2003) According to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), all American schools have access to the Internet. 2004 - 2006 IDEA 2004 The Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act aligns IDEA with NCLB and authorizes districts to use more assertive intervention methods. 13. U.S. District Court of PA Rules that the Teaching of Intelligent Design is Unconstitutional (2005) In Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District the court determined that teaching intelligent design in lieu of evolution is a First Amendment violation. 14. U.S. Dept. of Ed. Quashes State Opposition to NCLB (2004) The Federal government warns states that noncompliance with

NCLB will lead to a loss of funding. 15. 16. National Education Summit (2005) The nations governors and prominent leaders meet to set an agenda for high school improvement, to include more stringent graduation requirements and more efficient data accountability systems. 17. All Teachers Must be Highly Qualified By the end of the 2005-06 school year, every teacher must be certified and competent in his/her subject area. 2006 - 2008 State Reading Tests Required for Grades 3-8 By the end of the 2005-06 school year states must administer standards-based summative assessments to these grades. 18. 19. NEA Celebrates Its 150th Anniversary (2007) The National Education Association was established in 1857 to support Americas fledgling public school system. At its

inception, learning to read and write was considered a luxury. Finlands President Receives Nobel Peace Prize (2008) Marti Ahtisaari receives this prestigious award, in part, for creating a superb school system--one that is being studied and replicated throughout the world. 20. 21. AAMR Becomes AAIIDD (2007) The American Association on Mental Retardation is supplanted by the Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities as part of the national trend to reconstruct the flawed conceptualization of mental retardation. 2009 - 2011 The Common Core State Standards Initiative is Launched (2009) In a joint effort by the National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers national learning standards are established. It is believed that most states will adopt the standards. 22. 23. The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009 Passes The Race to the Top (RTTT) initiative is part of this $90 billion dollar legislative package designed to modernaize and improve K-12 education.

Wisconsin legislature removes collectivebargaining rights (2011) Governor Scott Walker in concert with the Wisconsin state House and Senate pass sweeping legislation that substantially erodes the teachers unions abilities to negotiate for higher wages and better working conditions. 24. 25. PARCC is Lauchned (2010-11) The Partnership for Assessment of College and Career Readiness is spawned with the help of a sizeable RTTT grant and the support of nummerous influential business and political leaders. The stated goals of the PARCC program are to improve standardized assessments and test Common Core state standards. 2012 - 2013 President Obama Calls for Students to Stay in School Until They Graduate or Reach the Age of 18 (2012) Currently, only twenty states require attendance until age 18. 26. Mitt Romney Warns of a National Education Emergency (2012) In language reminiscent of the Eisenhower administrations National Defense Education Act (NDEA) and the Reagan administrations A Nation at Risk report, Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney attempts to render the problems with U.S.

education tantamount to a war or a natural disaster. 27. 28. Thirty-two States are Granted Waivers from Child Left Behind (2012) The waivers for eight states are conditional and/or under review; however, in and of themselves they bring into question the quality and validity of NCLB, along with its associated rules and requirements. Seattle Teachers Refuse to Administer Standardized Test (2013) Local teachers refuse to give the district-mandated Measures of Academy Progress exam. Their efforts are part of a grass-roots movement against excessive standardized testing. 29. 30. Chicago Board of Ed. Closes Fifty Schools (2013) Mayor Rahm Emanual and CPS officials claim that the largest mass clossing in U.S. history will serve to reduce costs and improve educational quality. MAJOR ISSUES, CURRICULUM THRUSTS, AND APPROACHES Your own sub headline Technology is creating confusion, and it is virtually (pun intended) impossible to contain. What is a cell phone? Can text readability be quantified?

Educators, psychologists, and medical professionals are exploring the links between between neurology and literacy. PET scans, MRIs, and other brain imaging technques are opening new windows into the mind. Concept of text is broadened. Is digital literacy a valid constructon par with traditional literacy? Is a comic book text? Literacy is viewed contextually and socially. Advanced literacy is deemed dependent upon discourse and cultural sensitivity. Linguistic and cultural diversity are promotedat least on paper. Researchers are touting the value of minority discourses and local literature. Growing concern for at risk learners. Students are deemed at risk for numerous social, psychological, and/or cognitive reasons. More concern for the engaged learner. Prior to the mid-90s there was little concern for readers passions and/or goals. More concern for civic engagement. Literacy events do not occur in cognitive vacuums. 2000 2001 20092002 2003 2004 2010 2005 2006 2007 2008 2011 2009 2010 2012 2011 2012 2013 MAJOR ISSUES, CURRICULUM THRUSTS, AND APPROACHES

(CONTINUED) IDEA 2004 calls for intervention-centered literacy instruction. Intervention is effective, but it comes at a cost. Researchers recognize and demonstrate that balanced (e.g., top-down and bottom-up) literacy practices are best. Practitioners do not always get the message; thus, the reform pendulum keeps swinging. Increasing concern about the status of U.S. education in the global community. One only needs to peruse relevant political and commercial web sites (e.g., governmental sites, Common Core, PARCC, P21) to find a plethora of competitive language about the global economy. 2000 2001 20092002 2003 2004 2010 2005 2006 2007 2011 2008 2009 2010 2012 2011 2012 2013 Standards, measures, and accountability. Concerns about teacher efficacy. Teachers are being blamed for the problems with our public educaton system. TIES TO THE PAST Sabre rattling and alarmism. Eisenhowers National Defense Educaton Act (NDEA), Reagans A Nation at Risk, and Johnsons War on Poverty speech has laid the groundwork for the competitive

global economic language that is associated with todays education policy. Infatuation with scientific approaches to education. But what do we mean by scientific? Focus on correctness and accuracy. Educators maintain control of the classroom when they have the correct answers; minority voices are silenced when they use unconventional grammars, etc. Fear of diversity and multiculturalism. Despite what the research says about the benefits of bilingual education, in practice ESL students, students of color, and/or recent immigrants remain disadvantaged. ON A MORE POSITIVE NOTE Contemporary creativity research, while harkening back to the twentieth-century work of Guilford, et al., is more balancedit transcends affective and cognitive domains. The unfetterd, If it feels good, do it! educational progressivism of the 60s and 70s has been tempered. Serious researchers such as James Kaufman and Robert Sternberg, with their The Cambridge Handbook of Creativity, are studying divergent and convergent creative processes and using their research to challenge traditional conceptions of intelligence. Moreover, creativity researchers such as Ruth Richards are beginning to democratize creativity and view it in other than Big-C terms by exploring categories such as mini-c and Pro-C. 2000 2001 20092002 2003 2004 2010 2005 2006 2007 2008 2011 2009 2010 2012 2011 2012 2013

THE FUTURE Educate teachers about past practices. Murphy has suggested that a booklength history of twentieth-century writing instruction be written. Educate the public about present practices and research. Encourage parents to abandon conventional wisdom and old school thinking. Improve teacher training. Bridge the gap between professors and administrators. Foster multicultural sensitivity. Consider the roles and values of textbooks. How have textbooks shaped the teaching profession? Examine how technology helps and hinders advanced literacy. Can we harness technology and use it for effective purposes? Help teachers, students, and parents value literacy from various cultural perspectives. Above all, help everyone understand that there is no grand culture and/or dominant discourse. 2000 2001 20092002 2003 2004 2010 2005 2006 2007 2011 2008 2009 2010 2012 2011 2012 2013 THE FUTURE (CONTINUED) Bolster family literacy. Valuing local literature strengthens families and builds student identity. Implement balanced process and product-oriented practices and assessments. Listing

standards and hoping that fledgling, often poorly-trained, teachers meet those standards is not sufficient. Blend social, cognitive, and affective approaches. Put another way, let us avoid the pendulum swing by heeding what Aristotle has taught us about the rhetorical triangle Make clear provisions for creativity in language arts and literacy frameworks and curricula. The creative academic endeavors associated with advanced literacy involve students in goal setting, self-assessment, and meaning making. Most significantly, when students are creating they are engaged. Conduct reseach using balanced, layered , and inventive methodologies. Blended methods offer a deeper and richer understanding of language and literacy issues. Broaden our conceptualizations of assessments. PARCC does not seem to adequately stress formative assessments. 2000 2001 20092002 2003 2004 2010 2005 2006 2007 2011 2008 2009 2010 2012 2011 2012 2013 References About PARCC | PARCC. (n.d.). Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers | PARCC. Retrieved October 20, 2013, from American educational history timeline. (n.d.). Educational resources and lesson plans, find thousands of lesson plans. Educational Resources and Lesson Plans. Retrieved October 19, 2013, from http:// Bifuh-Ambe, E. (2006). Fostering multicultural appreciation in pre-service teachers through multicultural curricular transformation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22, 690-699. Bifuh-Ambe, E. (2007). Inviting reluctant adolescent readers into the literacy club: Some comprehension strategies to tutor individuals or small groups of reluctant readers. Journal of Adolescent 632-& Adult Literacy, 50(8), 632-639. Brisk, M. E. (2006). Bilingual education: From compensatory to quality schooling (2nd ed.). Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Fresch, M. J. (2008). An essential history of current reading practices. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Goyal, N. (2012). One size does not fit all: A student's assessment of school. Roslyn Heights, NY: Alternative Education Resource Organization (AERO). Hargreaves, A., & Shirley, D. (2009). The fourth way: The inspiring future for educational change. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin Press. Higher Education | The White House. (n.d.). The White House. Retrieved October 20, 2013, from Kamil, M. L. (2011). Handbook of reading research. New York: Routledge. Kaufman, J. C. & Sternberg, R. J. (2010). The Cambridge handbook of creativity. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. References McGuinn, P. J. (2006). No Child Left Behind and the transformation of federal education policy, 19652005. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas. Murphy, J. J. (2012). A short history of writing instruction: From ancient Greece to contemporary America (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge. Our History - The Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (n.d.). The Partnership for 21st Century Skills. Retrieved October 19, 2013, from Ravitch, D. (2000). Left back: A century of failed school reforms. New York: Simon & Schuster. Smagorinsky, P. (2006). Research on composition: Multiple perspectives on two decades of change. New York: Teachers College Press. Smith, N. B. (2002). American reading instruction (Special ed.). Newark, Del.: International Reading Association. Spring, J. H. (2011). The American school: A global context from the puritans to the Obama era (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Sumara, D. J. (2002). Why reading literature in school still matters: Imagination, interpretation, insight. Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum. Tollefson, J. W. (2002). Language policies in education: Critical issues. Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.

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