Antibiotics and ICU Infections Jill Williams, ACNP-BC Vanderbilt
Antibiotics and ICU Infections Jill Williams, ACNP-BC Vanderbilt University Medical Center Medical Intensive Care Unit Objectives Discuss strategies for antibiotic stewardship Review mechanisms of action (MOA) for antibiotics Discuss common ICU infections and antibiotic therapies including drug levels Antibiotic Stewardship What is it? Program to monitor use of antibiotics Coordinated effort between pharmacist and medical team
Why do we need it? To help achieve optimal clinical outcomes Minimize development of resistant strains of bacteria Decrease healthcare costs R/T toxicity and adverse events Antibiotic Stewardship How? Identify patient risk factors Know the hospital or unit antibiogram Review previous lab results and susceptibilities Consult with your pharmacist
Monitor drug levels when appropriate Collaborate with an infectious disease specialist Structure of Bacteria www.americanaquariumproducts.com Antibiotic Mechanism of Action Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases ESBLs Increasing cause of nosocomial infections Becoming prevalent in the community Higher mortality rates, longer hospital stays Action of ESBLs Open beta lactam ring on the antibiotic Opening of beta lactam ring = deactivation of
antibiotic ESBLs Common Culprits Klebsiella pneumoniae Klebsiella oxytoca Escherichia coli Resistance 3rd generation cephalosporins and monobactams Lab Testing Check sensitivities Resistance to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, or cefepime = high likelihood of ESBL ESBL Risk Factors
Hospital LOS* ICU LOS* Central venous catheters Arterial catheters Emergent abdominal surgery Gut colonization Presence jejunostomy or gastrostomy tube Prior antibiotics Residence in long-term care facility*
Severity of illness Presence of urinary catheter Hemodialysis* Ventilatory assistance Treatment Carbapenem family of antibiotics Only proven therapeutic option for infections Imipenem Meropenem Doripenem
Ertapenem Duration of treatment No longer than indicated with other antibiotics Ex: 10-14 days depending on infection Carbapenems Drug Dose Duration Comments Imipenem 500mg IV q 6-8
hours 7-14 days depending on severity of infection Adjust dose for renal impairment; lowers seizure threshold vs. meropenem Meropenem 500mg 1gram IV q 8 hours
Dependent on severity of infection No renal adjustment needed Doripenem 500mg q8 hrs 7-14 days Newer drug; renally dose 5-14 days
Not active against pseudomonas; not recommended for ICU Ertapenem 1 gram daily Methicillin Resistant Staph Aureus (MRSA) Risk factors Prior cephalosporin or quinolone use HIV infection Long-term indwelling dialysis catheters
Residence in long-term care facility MRSA Treatment Bacteremia** Vancomycin 15 20 mg/kg based on actual body weight Frequency of dose dependent on renal function OR Daptomycin 6mg/kg/dose IV daily 8-10mg/kg/dose IV daily for complicated infections
Pneumonia Vancomycin 15 20 mg/kg based on actual body weight Frequency of dose dependent on renal function OR Linezolid 600mg IV or PO BID NO Daptomycin Poor lung penetration Vancomycin Treats multiple infections
Endocarditis, osteomyelitis, bacteremia, HCAP, meningitis Optimal level 15 20 mg/L Keep level > 10 mg/L to avoid potential antimicrobial resistance Trough level = most effective measurement of levels Draw 30 min prior to 5th dose Vancomycin Nephrotoxicity Definition: > 50% increase in Serum Creatinine over baseline on consecutive serum measurements (over 2 days) in the absence of alternative explanations Increased risk toxicity: Elderly, longer course of treatment, concomitant nephrotoxic medications, possibly increased serum trough levels
Reduce toxicity: Monitor levels with fluctuating renal function Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci Occurs in intestine and female urinary tract Distinguish between active infection and colonization E. Faecalis and E. faecium most common forms More than 90% cases E. faecium Limited studies for most effective drug No official ID Guidelines
Treatment based on available data: Linezolid 600mg PO/IV BID OR Daptomycin 6mg/kg/dose daily** Fungal Infections Risk Factors Disseminated Disease Duration of antibiotics > 6 days Number of antibiotics 3 therapies Renal failure Central venous catheters Steroid use
Gram negative sepsis Cancer Burns Multiple trauma Diabetes mellitus Total parenteral nutrition Neutropenic vs. Nonneutropenic Common Fungal Species Candida
C. albicans C. tropicalis C. parapsilosis C. glabrata C. krusei C. lusitaniae Aspergillus Treatment Options Azoles
Fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole Echinocandins Micafungin, caspofungin, anidulafungin Polyenes Amphotericin B + lipids Drug Fluconazole Itraconazole Voriconazole Posaconazole
Bioavailability Metabolism > 90% IV and PO Highly variable >90% <50% Adverse Effects
Comments >80% excreted unchanged in urine Alopecia Chapped lips Active agst yeast; itraconazole better for fungi Extensive in liver HTN
Hyperkalemia Peripheral Edema Capsule and solution NOT interchangeable Cardiac toxicity Rash Periostitis Penetrates CSF; adjust for hepatic impairment Extensive in
liver Liver GI symptoms Torsades Increased concentration with increased administration Drug Dosing Drug Dosing Serum Drug Levels Itraconazole
Check level after steady state achieved (suggested 2 weeks) For invasive fungal infections: >3 mcg/mL by bioassay Linear relationship between increased levels and toxicity Voriconazole Check 4 7 days into therapy (TROUGH level) Invasive fungal infections: 1 mg/L < 5.5 mg/L Posaconazole No official guidelines for therapeutic levels Suggestion: Trough level Prophylaxis: 0.5 mcg/mL Severe infection: 0.7 mg/mL Echinocandins Indication Caspofungin
Disease Initial Treatment Duration of Treatment** Mild to Moderate Metronidazole 500mg TID 10-14 days Moderate to Severe Vancomycin 125mg PO QID
10-14 days Recurrence (non-severe) Metronidazole 500mg TID 10-14 days Recurrence (severe) Vancomycin 500mg QID + Metronidazole 500mg IV TID
10-14 days References Society of Critical Care Medicine. (2009). ICU infection in an era of multi-resistance; selected proceedings from the 8th summer conference in intensive care medicine. Mount Prospect: Certified Fiber Sourcing. Brandt, L. J., & Feuerstadt, P. (2011). Clostridium difficile: Epidemiology, transmission, and treatment. Infectious Disease Special Edition, 14, 75-83. Martin, S. J., Micek, S. T., & Wood, G. C. (2012). Antimicrobial resistance is an adverse drug event. In J. Papadopoulos, B. Cooper, S. Kane-Gill, S. Corbett & J. Barletta (Eds.), DrugInduced Complications in the critically ill patient: A guide for recognition and treatmentMount Prospect: Society of Critical Care Medicine. References
Rybak, M., Lomaestro, B., Rotschafer, J. C., Moellering Jr, R., Craig, W., Billeter, M., Dalovisio, J. & Levine, D. (2009). Therapeutic monitoring of vancomycin in adult patients: A consensus review of the american society of health system pharmacists, the infectious disease society of america, and the society of infectious disease pharmacists. American Journal Health System Pharmacists, 66, 82-98. Retrieved from http://www.ajhp.org Liu, C., Bayer, A., Cosgrove, S., & Daum, R. (2011). Clinical practice guidelines but the infectious diseases society of america for the treatment of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus infections in adults and children. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 52(3), e18-e55. Retrieved from http://cid.oxfordjournals.org References Kelly, C. P., & LaMont, J. T. (2013, March). Clostridium difficile in adults:treatment. Retrieved from www.uptodate.com
Ashley, E. D., & Perfect, J. R. (2013, June). Pharmacology of azoles. Retrieved from www.uptodate.com www.cdc.gov http://www.idsociety.org Kauffman, C. A., & (2013, July). Treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis in adults. Retrieved from www.uptodate.com Chen, L. F., & Drew, R. H. (2013, April). Pharmacology of antimicrobial agents for treatment of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin resistant enterococcus. Retrieved from www.uptodate.com References Munoz-Price, L. S., & Jacoby, G. A. (2013, April). Extendedspectrum beta-lactamases. Retrieved from www.uptodate.com Runyon, B. A., & (2013, July). Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in adults: Treatment and prophylaxis. Retrieved from www.uptodate.com
Sucher, A. J., Chahine, E. B., & Balcer, H. E. (2009). Echinocandins: The newest class of antifungals. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 43, 1647-57. The following slides exhibit various anatomical systems and common organisms responsible for infections. Streptococcus S. Viridans S. Mutans Fusobacterium (Leimerres disease) Staphylococcus S. aureus S. epidermidis
Function of cross-linking. These cross-links stabilize the side-by-side packing of collagen molecules and generate a strong fibril. If cross-linking is inhibited, the tensile strength of the fibrils is drastically reduced; collagenous tissues become fragile, and structures such as skin, tendons,...
Whiskey is for Drinking and Water is for Fighting Dr. Jack Sharp, Department of Geological Sciences University of Texas at Austin The Edwards aquifer of central Texas is an extensive, karstified flow system developed in rocks deposited on a Cretaceous...
Typically, surveys gather data at a particular point in time with the intention of describing the nature of existing conditions, or identifying standards against which existing conditions can be compared, or determining the relationship that exist between specific events (Cohen,...
"Stolper-Samuelson Theorem" extends theory of factor price equalization. A country has a comparative advantage in products that intensively utilize abundant factors. Trade increases the (domestic) price of these products and thus the wage of the abundant factor.
Again we are very active. The children will have times where they are writing but they will also be using the computer, playing games, using whiteboards, cubes, outdoor learning (chalk number lines, oral/mental sums), buzz, bingo etc. The list is...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!