PASA PRIMATE WELFARE PASA Welfare Team What do you think is animal welfare? Law & Legislation Animal Welfare Act 2006 (UK) European Commission - EU Directive

African legislation on animal welfare? Incomplete and always behind as the latest research is not integrated International differences 5 FREEDOMS BRAMBELL REPORT 1965 Freedom from hunger and thirst - access to fresh water and a diet for full health and vigour (freedom from thirst, hunger, malnutrition)

Freedom from discomfort - an appropriate environment with shelter and comfortable rest area (appropriate comfort and shelter) Freedom from pain, injury and disease - prevention or rapid treatment, (prevention, or rapid diagnosis and treatment, of injury and disease) Freedom to express normal behaviour - adequate space and facilities, company of the animal's own kind (freedom to display most normal patterns of behaviour) Freedom from fear and distress - conditions and treatment which avoid mental sufferings (freedom from fear) Good starting points but limited and incomplete

ANIMAL WELFARE INDICATORS (BROOM 1999) Reduced longevity; reduced ability to grow or breed; body damage; disease; immunosuppression; physiological attempts to cope; behavioural attempts to cope; behavioural pathology (e.g. stereotypies, apathy, self-mutilation, learned helplessness); self narcotisation; extent of behavioural aversion expressed; extent of the suppression of normal behaviour patterns; extent to which normal physiological processes and anatomical developments are inhibited, ...

ANIMAL WELFARE INDICATORS (BROOM 1999) Animal welfare indicators of negative welfare, what are the positive indicators? Absence of stereotypic and or other maladaptive behaviours does not mean welfare is good. Animal with stereotypic behaviours could have better welfare (Mason

2008) POSITIVE ANIMAL WELFARE INDICATORS Goals of sanctuaries Challenges (Possible) roles of animals in the sanctuaries Promotion of good welfare is fundamental

What have animals evolved to do, ecology, sensory systems, social structure, ... Informed by science (we know and we dont know!) & ethics ANIMAL WELFARE FRAMEWORK / PROTOCOLS Local document

PASA Sanctuary Written overview of what animal welfare is How it will be assessed & maintained

Focus on positive welfare LIFE CYCLE OF AN ANIMAL: SPECIES AND INDIVIDUAL Species: birth, adolescence (f.e. young animals need time & space to play), reproductive ages, ageing (for older bears stability if failing eyesight, arthritis) and senescence Individual: personality /temperament on welfare and enrichment, early rearing environment, & visitor effects

DAY VERSUS NIGHT Geographical area: weather / temperatures / light Working hours & routines staff What do animals do at night? Data collection

Housing Enrichment Bad sleep leads to bad welfare 24/7 ACROSS THE YEAR Variation across the week (weekend/weekday, visitor numbers and staff presence)

Variation across the year (holidays, both high days and Christmas day - no visitors etc., or sanctuary opening hours across the year (visitor numbers and staff presence) Seasonal variation across year (e.g. weather means different requirements for shelter, animals get locked inside, indoor & outdoor, ANIMAL WELFARE

The standards / norms relating to the well-being and health of animals - whole animal: cognition, affective states, behaviour, physiology, nutrition, social life, etc. Why is animal welfare important? To ensure predominantly positive welfare Responsibility Protection Evidence-based Empathy & ethics

ANIMAL WELFARE ASSESSMENT Qualitative Behaviour Health Assessment Physiology Cognitive bias

Quantitive Behaviour Analysis Anticipatory cues Theory of demand What animals know about Preference what they know - opt out

PROF. M. STAMP-DAWKINS - 2 QUESTIONS: Are the animals healthy? Do they have what they want? BY DR. GORDON BURGHARDT Anthropomorphism Attributing human characteristics to nonhuman entities (grievous sin)

Anthropomorphism by Omission Unwittingly neglecting the animals perspective and Umwelt (also a grievous sin) BY DR. GORDON BURGHARDT Critical Anthropomorphism Using our stance as human beings to propose the occurrence of testable cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in other species informed by a rigorous incorporation of empirical knowledge and research findings on physiology, sensory and neural

processes, ecology, behavior, sociality, and development (Essential Virtue) Judging other species using markers such as screams, smiles, or even speed of responding can be uncritically anthropomorphic and a hallmark of anthropocentrism! ANIMAL - HUMAN INTERACTION What matters to quality is how things are done, their style; quality is a dynamic notion. Rather than the amount of attention we pay to animals,

for example, what matters is how we do this, the quality of that attention. Our behaviour when working around and with animals Animal learn all the time: Voluntary collaboration / animal training PTR Behavioural learning theories High vigilance & anticipatory cues

WHAT IS ENRICHMENT? Depends on different philosophies & definitions Good husbandry versus enrichment Enrichment categories Opportunities for more choice and control Importance of understanding what is enriching

REST AND SLEEP Fit animals need rest and sleep Type of bedding, floor, light, noise, ... Quality versus quantity Social

Night & day schedules Learning & memory ANIMAL EMOTIONS / CHARACTERISTICS Personality - shelter adoption pilot example Characteristics - match / adapt Anthropomorphising (critical) Behaviour versus underlying emotional state

Methods affecting emotions SOCIAL LIFE Friends & family Quality relationships Solitary housing Get away place Training in a group Holding areas

THE GOOD, THE BAD, THE UGLY & THE STUPID Cute, nice, intelligent, aggressive, shy, stupid, .... Chrystal Okapis Wellbeing - quality of care Pygmalion effect

THE ANIMALS ARE NOT BEHAVING! Understanding animals Sds & onsequences What they can do for us What we can do for them Choice & control

TOOLS Water sprays, stones, loud noises, brooms, sticks Crush cages Body posture & eye gaze, threatening postures, shouting Food and or water (mis)use / control Use of other individuals

THE USE OF ANIMAL TRAINING Husbandry Daily management Preventive health care Exercise Enrichment Positive human-animal interactions Research samples / data collection

NO BAR POLICY No cheating 2-way communication Empathy Real choices & control ENVIRONMENT

Environment quantity Environmental complexity Fixed and flexibility Social needs and preferences Choice and control Animal management and access Enrichment Training RECORD KEEPING

Animal welfare assessment All aspects of animal care Input resources Outcome criteria Short term and long term goals and criteria

WELFARE ASSESSMENT Identify specific issues for individuals Identify realistic goals Identify realistic actions to achieve these goals Apply deadlines for review and reassessment Review response to actions/changes implemented Ensure team involvement and communication The PASA Primate Care Training Program is made possible by a generous grant from

Fondation Brigitte Bardot.

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