Features of Early Civilizations Ancient Mesopotamia Government City
Features of Early Civilizations Ancient Mesopotamia Government City States: Cities that control the lands around them. King Hammurabi-First to enforce a set of laws, believed strong should not control the week. Kings ruled-----> Often War heroes. Ancient Mesopotamia Food Supply
Many Crops Plenty of food due to irrigation. Most people were farmers. Rich soil from the Fertile Crescent and floods.
Ancient Mesopotamia Economics Traded with other towns/cities in the area. Traded or traded for tools, wheat, barley, copper, tin, and timber (wood). Farming Ancient Mesopotamia Resources and Technology Invented 12 month calendar, wheel, plow, writing system (cuneiform), sailboat,
geometry, number system based on 60, 60 second minute, 60 minute hour, 360 degree circle. Ancient Mesopotamia Division of Labor Three social classes: Upper, Middle, and Lower. Upper: Kings, Priests, Government Officials. Middle: Artisans, Merchants, Farmers, and Fishers.
Low: Enslaved Prisoners of war, criminals, unskilled. Ancients Mesopotamia Communication Only men (wealthy) went to school.
Used Cuneiform (wedged shaped writing). Scribes kept records. Writing system (Cuneiform) to keep records and pass ideas. Ancient Egypt Government Used to direct and plan activities to resolve problems in society. Early Rulers were village chiefs. Eventually rulers came from a dynasty, or
bloodline of power. Leaders known as Pharohs. Ancient Egypt Food Supply
Successful Farmers Wheat, barley, and flax seed. Often grew surplus. Irrigation helped their success. Regular flooding = surplus. Ancient Egypt Economics
Farming Trade w/Mesopotamia. Business owners/shop keepers. Trade with each other. Ancient Egypt Resources and Technology ShadoofBucket attached to a long pole and dipped into the water.
PapyrusFirst paper made from it. First medical books Number system based on 10. Writing system, hieroglyphics, picture writing. Ancient Egypt Division of Labor 3 Social Classes: Upper, Middle, Lower. Upper: Pharaoh, nobles, priests, wealthy. Middle: Traders, artisans, shopkeepers, scribes, skilled workers.
Lower: Unskilled workers, farmers, herders. Ancient Egypt Communication Hieroglyphics Picture writing Later, pictures stood for sounds Ex. Boat = Ancient India Government Little known due to lack of records.
Religion and politics were closely connected (normal for the time). Kings and Priests most influential. Ancient India Food Supply Rice, wheat, barely, peas Cattle were prized for because of meat, milk, and being a source of butter. Later cattle became sacred and were forbidden to be eaten (Aryans).
Fertile soil and river floods helped provide surplus. Ancient India Economics Cattle sometimes used as money. Individual wealth based on # of cattle on had. Ancient India Resources and Technology
Algebra Idea of zero Infinity Symbols for numbers 1-9 Medical tools Plastic surgery Mapped movement of universe Earth revolved around the sun Steel tools and weapons
Ancient India Division of Labor Caste System Made of 4 Varnas, or levels. Priests
Rulers/Warriors Farmers, merchants Slaves, servants Untouchablesperformed the lowest and most unwanted jobs: ex. cleaning up body fluids and animal carcasses. Ancient India Communication Sanskrit: Written language Many songs, poems, and prayers passed
along. Ancient China Government Dynasties: Power passed in the bloodline, power stays within a family. Kings Bureaucracy: appointed officials responsible for different areas of government.government broken up.
Ancient China Food Supply Grains, wheat, and rice Cattle, sheep, and chickens Tea
Fertile soil and flooding of rivers Surplus allowed population to grow. Ancient China Economics Traded tea, porcelain, paper, steel, silk Traded for gold, silver, precious stones, and fine woods. The route western Asia and Europe used became known as the Silk Road.
Ancient China Resources and Technology
Iron plow Irrigation and flood system Cross bow Abacus (ancient calculator) Great Wall Printing Press
Gun Powder Porcelain Fireworks Boat rudders Coal Steel (Armor swords, helmets, stoves, tools, drills, chains, nails, and needles) Ancient China Division of Labor Aristocrats-Wealthy Landowners Farmers
Merchants Ancient China Communication Pictographs-Characters that stand for objects. Ideographs-Characters used in writing that joins two pictographs together. Calligraphy-Beautiful hand writing (pg. 421)
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