therapy GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY P R E S E N T E D B Y: MANI RAFIEE Treatments and Therapies 1. Biological treatments for psychological disorders 2. Psychotherapies Biological treatments for psychological disorders 1. Psychosurgery 2. ECT (Electroconvulsive therapy) 3. Pharmacotherapy (psychotropic drugs) 4. Bio feedback 5. Herbal therapy Psychosurgeries Lobotomy: Surgical operation in which white nerve fibres connecting the frontal lobe with other parts of the brain are severed .1950s Cingulotomy: surgical procedure in which neurosurgeons make lesions in the cingulate gyrus, a section of the brain connecting the

prefrontal cortex to the limbic system. ECT (Electroconvulsive therapy) 1940-60 Todays for severe depression two electrodes are placed on the scalp and a moderately intense electric current is passed between them for about half a second. Pharmacotherapy (psychotropic drugs) Anxiolytics a treatment for anxiety disorders, Benzodiazepine (diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, alprazolam) Antidepressants treatments for mood disorders (tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)) Antipsychotics (chlorpromazine, haloperidol, clozapine, risperidone) The limits of drug therapy Psychotherapies 1. Psychoanalytic and psychodynamic 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. therapies Cognitive-Behavioral therapies Humanistic therapies Family, couple and group therapies Integrative and eclectic therapies Other common psychotherapies Psychoanalytic and psychodynamic therapy Classical psychoanalysis Individual (Adlerian) psychotherapy Analytical (Jungian) psychology Object-relations therapy Intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy Classical psychoanalysis History and key figures Sigmund Freud 1890s Studies on Hysteria Anna O. The Interpretation of Dreams psychosexual

phases Concepts Oedipal desire Libido Defense mechanisms Id, ego and superego Unconscious Technics Goals and usage Free Psychosexual association maturity via Dream insight interpretation strengthening Transference ego functions Individual (Adlerian) psychotherapy History and

key figures After world war one Getting separate of Freud 1912 Emphasizes free will Phenomenolo gical view Concepts Holistic concept Inferiority feeling Social interest Community feelings Life style Birth order Technics Usage and goals

empathy and Establish a relationships relationship Subjective between and objective client and interview community Encourageme replace selfnt defeating Interpretation behaviors for and ones that will recognition lead to a use of role more positive playing, and healthy guided lifestyle imagery and narration and reorientation Analytical (Jungian) psychology

History and key figures specialized in psychiatry introduced to Froude in 1907 the first president of the Internatio nal Association of Psychoanalysi s Concepts Collective unconscious Personal unconscious Archetypes Anima/ Animus persona shadow Technics Dream analysis

Word associations test Symbol Analysis Active Imagination Usage and goals Individuation Object-relations therapy History and key figures Concepts Otto kernberg Internal Melanie Klein object Klein Self established The Self in her theory at Relation with 1946 Others

Margaret mahler Heinz kohut John bowlby Technics Usage and goals transference Self maturity and countertransf erence interpretation of the transference intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) History and key figures Concepts Technics Usage and

goals common roots Similar to active Treatment of with classical classical advocate of emotional psychoanalysi psychoanalysi change rather disorders s s than a neutral resolve observer as in anxiety, traditional depression, analysis somatization encourageme and nt to feel personality challenge to disorders take

responsibility to change confrontation of resistance to change Cognitive-Behavioral therapies behavioral therapy Rational emotive behavior therapy Cognitive therapy Mindfullness based cognitive psychotherapy Acceptance and commitment therapy behavioral therapy History and key figures Concepts Technics Pavlov an dog experiment in 1889 Watson and little albert Skinner and operant conditioning

Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Learning Modeling Reinforcemen t Relaxation Systematic desensitizatio n Counter conditioning Exposure Usage and goals Treatment of phobias behavioral mo dification Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) History and

key figures Concepts Technics Albert Ellis in 1950s one of the first of the cognitive behavior therapies development continued until his death in 2007 A-B-C model Activating event Belief Emotional consequences Three insight Cognitive restructuring D-E-F

Disputing Effective philosophy Feeling Thinking about thinking Assignment Bibliotherapy Psycho education Role playing Usage and Goals Treatment of self-blame , self-pity, clinical anger, hurt, guilt, shame, depre ssion and anxi ety Replacing rational cognitions with dysfunctional cognitions.

Cognitive therapy (CT) History and key figures Concepts Technics Usage and goals Aaron T.Beck Beck outlined his approach in Depression : Causes and Treatment in 1967 1970s saw a general "cognitive revolution" in psychology automatic thoughts Cognitive distortions

Magnification and minimization Personalizatio n Labeling and mislabeling Socratic questioning Challenging maladaptive core belief change the way clients think schema restructuring Treatment of depression and many other disorders with strong experimental bases

Mindfullness based cognitive psychotherapy (MBCT) History and key figures Concepts Base on Metacognitiv Buddhism e awareness philosophy judgment It uses CBT acceptance methods Barnard and Teasdales 1991 Zindel Segal and Mark Williams,mak e mindfulness -based stress reduction program Technics

Meditation mind management skills being aware moment-tomoment Usage and goals preventing the relapse of MDD accepting and observing themselves without judgment teach the participants to focus less on reacting to incoming events Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) History and key figures

Mixture of acceptance a nd mindfullness with commitment and behaviorchange strategies developed in the late 1980s by Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson, and Kirk Strosahl Concepts Acceptance Values Cognitive diffusion self-ascontext Technics Usage and goals Contact with

increase the present psychological moment flexibility Observing the be present self with what life Committed brings us actions help the finding values individual clarify their personal values and to take action on them Humanistic therapies Existential psychotherapy Logo therapy Gestalt psychotherapy person center psychotherapy Reality therapy Existential psychotherapy History and

key figures A Philosophical /Intellectual Approach to Therapy Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Husserl, Buber, Tillich, Heidegger Ervin yalom Rollo May Phenomenolo gical view Concepts Technics Free will person-toResponsibility person

Death anxiety relationship Loneliness Respect and Choice faith in the Meaning of clients life potential Sharing reaction Usage and goals Taking individuals responsibility to make his or her life meaningfu Logo therapy History and key figures Concepts Viktor Frankl Logo

experience of Despair being in maturity concentration was basis for his theory Mans Search for Meaning Technics Dereflection Humor Paradoxical intention Socratic dialogue Usage and goals Finding meaning of life and change philosophical view to world, self and others Helping

Terminally-ill patients Gestalt psychotherapy History and key figures Grounded in existentialism and phenomenolo gical philosophy Fritz Perls, Laura Perls and Paul Goodman in the 1940s and 1950s Concepts Holism Field theory Organismic selfregulation Figure Formation Process Technics

The empty chair technique Empathy Focusing on Nonverbal Role-playing Group Work Experiments Usage and goals selfregulating Living in present moment Awareness Accept feelings Person-center psychotherapy History and key figures Carl Rogers 1950s ClientCentered 1980s to 1990s PersonCentered

Based on Maslow and existential approach Concepts Actualizing tendency Need for positive regard Choice and free will Selfdetermination Technics Usage and goals Nondirective self-directed Counseling growth Unconditional Use in positive counseling regard Congruence Accurate

empathic understandin g Reality therapy History and key figures William Glasser and Robert Wubbolding Developed in the 1950s and 1960s Concepts Technics Usage and Goals

Choice thory Belonging Power Freedom Fun Survival Counseling environment Specific procedures that lead to behavior change Help people find better ways to meet their needs for survival, love and belonging, power, freedom and fun Assist clients gain personal growth, enhanced

lifestyle and better decision Family, couple and group therapies Group therapies Couple therapy Systematic family therapy Genogram Attachment based family therapy Strategic family therapy Genogram Integrative and eclectic therapies What is the difference between integrative and eclectic therapies? Some example of integrative therapies: Existential-cognitive therapy Daseinsanalysis Cognitive-hypnotherapy humanistic-experiential psychotherapy

Cognitive-analytic therapy Other common psychotherapies Feministic psychotherapy Post modern psychotherapy Narrative psychotherapy Transactional analysis Hypnotherapy Psychoeducation Art therapies 12 step programs Positive psychotherapy DBT (Dialectical behavior therapy) EMDR (Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing) EFT (Emotionally focused therapy ) Any questions?

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