1 THE PARADOX OF HUMAN EQUIVALENT DOSE FORMULA

1 THE PARADOX OF HUMAN EQUIVALENT DOSE FORMULA

1 THE PARADOX OF HUMAN EQUIVALENT DOSE FORMULA A CANONICAL CASE STUDY OF PIROXICAM (FELDENE) IN MONOGASTRIC ANIMALS SAGANUWAN ALHAJI SAGANUWAN (DVM, PGD, PGDE, MSc, PhD, FIIA) 2 PIROXICAM IS A NONSTEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY ANALGESIC THAT CAN CAUSE ALCERATION OF MUCOSAL LINING AND BLEEDING OF

GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. IT IS ALSO TOXIC TO KIDNEY. THE DAILY DOSE FOR AVERAGE ADULT HUMAN IS 10-40 ALLOMETRIC SCALING IS AN EMPIRICAL EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PHARMACOKINETIC PARAMETERS AND SIZE (USUALLY BODY WEIGHT, RATIO OF ORGAN & BODY WEIGHT, BREATHING NUMBER ETC). THE ALLOMETRIC EQUATION IS: = 3 WHERE P = PHYSIOLOGICAL PROPERTY OR ANATOMIC SIZE a = EMPIRICAL COEFFICIENT

BW = BODYWEIGHT m = ALLOMETRIC EXPONENT 4 THE SURFACE AREA STILL FINDS WIDE ACCEPTANCE IN THE CLINICAL LITERATURE, AND IS AT NO MORE THAN A ROUGH EMPIRICAL APPROXIMATION EVEN FOR HOMOITHERMS. 5 BODY SURFACE AREA (BSA) IS EQUAL TO: BODY WEIGHT (kg)2/3 x 10-4 x K K FOR DOG = 10.1

K FOR CAT = 10.0 EMPIRICAL COEFFICIENT = 10-4 THE BODY WEIGHT EXPONENTS 2/3 OR CAN BE USED BUT EXPONENT GIVES A HIGHER DOSE THAN 2/3, HENCE SHOULD NOT BE APPLIED 6 7 DOG*, CAT, MONKEY*, BABOON*, RABBIT*, MICRO-PIG, MINI-PIG, SQUIRREL MONKEY, MARMOSET, FERRET, GUINEA PIG*, HARMSTER, RAT & MOUSE

8 HUMAN EQUIVALENT DOSE (HED) WHICH IS EQUAL TO ANIMAL DOSE (AD) MULTIPLIED BY ANIMAL KM DIVIDED BY HUMAN KM WAS USED TO PROJECT THE THERAPEUTIC DOSES OF PIROXICAM IN SEVEN (7) MONOGASTRIC ANIMALS. HED = WHEREAS KM FACTOR IS BODY WEIGHT (KG) DIVIDED BY BODY SURFACE AREA (m)2 Km = 9 HUMAN EQUIVALENT NOOBSERVABLE ADVERSE EFFECT

DOSES WHERE DETERMINED BY MULTIPLYING ANIMAL NOOBSERVABLE ADVERSE EFFECT DOSE BY ANIMAL WEIGHT (AW) DIVIDED BY HUMAN WEIGHT (HW). HENAED = TABLE: HUMAN-MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL EQUIVALENT DOSES OF PIROXICAM (20 MILLIGRAMMES) S/No 10 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Species Body weight (kg) BSA

(m2) Mouse Hamster Rat Guinea pig Rabbit Monkey Baboon Ferret Marmoset Squirrel monkey Cat Dog* Micro-pig Mini-pig Adult human

0.02 0.08 0.15 0.4 1.8 3.0 12 0.3 0.35 0.6 7.0 10 20 40 70 0.007 0.02

0.025 0.069 0.15 0.24 0.6 0.043 0.06 0.09 0.37 0.5 0.74 1.14 1.86 Km Factor 2.9 4.0

6.0 5.8 12.0 12.5 20.0 7.0 5.8 6.7 18.9 20.0 27.0 35.1 37.6 Therapeutic Dose (mg) Total Translated

Dose (mg) 3.6 2.6 1.7 1.8 0.89 0.85 0.53 1.53 1.84 1.59 0.56 0.53* 0.39 0.30* 0.285

0.072* 0.2* 0.25* 0.72* 1.6 2.5 6.3 0.45* 0.64* 0.95* 3.9* 5.3* 7.8 12** - Total given Literature dose

(mg) - 35 10-40** *SINGLE DOSES OF PIROXICAM (20 40 MG) IN HUMAN ARE REASONABLY EFFECTIVE FOR TREATING MODERATE TO SEVERE POST-OPERATIVE PAINS AND COMPARE FAVOURABLY WITH OPIOID ANALGESICS SUCH AS DEXTROPROPOXYPHENE AND 11 TRAMADOL. *FEW ADVERSE EFFECTS WERE REPORTED AND PIROXICAM APPEARS TO BE FAIRLY TOLERATED IN

12 *IN MULTIPLE DOSING THE ADVERSE EFFECT PROFILE MAY BE MORE PROMINENT, THEREFORE, THERE IS A DEFINITE NEED TO BE ABLE TO QUANTITATIVELY ASSESS THE EFFICACY AND ADVERSE EFFECTS OF PIROXICAM IN PROLONGED DOSING REGIMENS (MOORE ET AL., 2010). THE EXTRAPOLATED HIGH DOSES OF PIROXICAM FOR MONOGASTRIC ANIMALS AGREES WITH THE REPORTS OF CALEJESAN ET AL. (2000), SUKUMARANNAR ET AL. (2002) AND HELLYER ET AL. (2007) INDICATING 13

THAT ANIMALS FEEL MORE PAIN THAN HUMANS, SINCE THEY POSSESS MORE DIFFUSE NEURAL NETWORKS. 14 THE EXTRAPOLATED DOSE OF PIROXICAM (1.7 MG/KG) AGREES WITH THE REPORT OF UDEGBUNAM ET AL. (2012) INDICATING THAT PIROXICAM (5MG/GK) ALLEVIATED PAIN AND STRESS ASSOCIATED WITH WOUNDS IN RATS WITH MINIMAL SIDE EFFECTS. 15 STURMAN AND SMITH (1967)

REPORTED THAT RHESUS MONKEY, RABBIT AND GUINEA-PIG RESEMBLE MAN IN HAVING A RELATIVELY HIGH AFFINITY FOR BINDING SALICYTE A NSAIDS SIMILAR TO PIROXICAM IN PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION. BUT BABOON, DOG, RAT AND MOUSE HAD A LOW BINDING CAPACITY. GASTRIC LESION AND RENAL PAPILLARY NECROSIS HAVE OCCURRED IN DOGS RECEIVING 1 MG/ KG DAILY (GALBRAITH AND MCKELLAR, 1991; KNAPP ET AL., 1992). HOWEVER, LITTLE EVIDENCE OF TOXICITY (GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING WAS NOTED AFTER 16

ADMINISTRATION OF 0.3 MG/KG EVERY OTHER DAY (GALBRAITH AND MCKELLAR, 1991; KNAPP ET AL., 17 EXTRAPOLATION FROM USE IN HUMANS TO DOGS SHOULD BE DONE CAUTIOUSLY BECAUSE OF POSSIBLE DIFFERENCES IN VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION, THERAPEUTIC CONCENTRATIONS OR SAFETY MARGIN (BOOTHE, 2001). i. ii.

iii. 18 iv. v. CONCLUSION: THE EXTRAPOLATED TOTAL DOSES FOR DOG (10kg), CAT (7kg), RABBIT (1.8kg), MONKEY (3kg), BABOON (6.3kg), MICRO-PIG (20kg) AND MINI-PIG (40kg) ARE 5.3, 3.9, 1.6, 2.5, 6.3, 1.6mg RESPECTIVELY LITERATURE SEARCH HAS SHOWN A TOTAL OF 3-5mg FOR A DOG WEIGHING 10kg FOR A DOG WEIGHING 10kg, A DOSE OF 5.3 MILLIGRAMME SHOULD NOT BE EXCEEDED, AND THE SAME PRINCIPLE APPLIES TO THE REST OF EXTRAPOLATED DOSES, SINCE THE DOSES HAVE NOT

BEEN EVALUATED LABORATORY TEST CAN BE CARRIED OUT FOR VALIDATION OF THE EXTRAPOLATED DOSES. THE ROUGH ESTIMATION OF THERAPEUTIC DOSES FOR HUMAN DRUGS WHOSE ANIMAL DOSES HAVE NOT BEEN DETERMINED IS EVIDENT IN VETERINARY CLINICAL PRACTICE. REFERENCES: BOOTHE, 2001 CALEJESAN ET AL., 2000 DUBOIS & DUBOIS, 1915, 1916 GALBRATH AND MCKELLAR, 1991 19 HELLYER ET AL. 2007 MOORE ET AL., 2010 PLUNKETT, 2001, KAPP ET AL., 1992,

REFERENCES: REAGAN-SHAW ET AL., 2007 SAGANUWAN, 2012 SAGANUWAN & ONYEYILI, 2014 20 STURMAN AND SMITH, 1967 SUKUMARANNAR ET AL., 2002 UDEGBUNA, ET AL., 2012 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I SINCERELY THANK THE MANAGEMENT OF THE OMIC FOR GIVING ME AN OPPORTUNITY TO 21 PRESENT THIS FOR THE SAKE OF

KNOWLEDGE, OUR CLIENTS AND PATIENTS THANKS FOR 22 LISTENING

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