18.9 Balancing OxidationReduction Reactions Galvanic Cells Standard Reduction Potentials Cell Potential, Electrical Work, and Free Energy Dependence of Cell Potential on Concentration Batteries Corrosion
MnO4-(aq) + 5Fe2+(aq) + 8H+(aq) Mn2+(aq) + 5Fe3+(aq) + 4H2O Balancing Redox Equations Review of Terms: Oxidationreduction (redox) reaction involves a transfer of electrons from the reducing agent to the oxidizing agent Oxidation loss of electrons
Reduction gain of electrons Reducing agent electron donor Oxidizing agent electron acceptor Balancing Redox Equations HalfReactions Method: The overall reaction is split into two half reactions, one involving oxidation and one reduction.
8H+ + MnO4 + 5Fe2+ Mn2+ + 5Fe3+ + 4H2O Reduction: 8H+ + MnO4 + 5e Mn2+ + 4H2O Oxidation: 5Fe2+ 5Fe3+ + 5e Balancing Redox Equations The HalfReaction Method for Balancing
Equations for OxidationReduction Reactions Occurring in Acidic Solution 1. Write separate equations for the oxidation and reduction halfreactions. 2. For each halfreaction: A. B. C.
D. Balance all the elements except H and O. Balance O using H2O. Balance H using H+. Balance the charge using electrons. Balancing Redox Equations: The Half-Reaction Method
1. Write separate equations for oxidation and reduction halfreactions. 2. For each halfreaction: Balance all the elements except H and O. Balance O using H2O. Balance H using H+. Balance the charge using electrons. 3. If necessary, multiply one or both balanced half
reactions by an integer to make the number of electrons in both halfreactions equal. 4. Add halfreactions and cancel identical species. Balancing Redox Equations Example: Cr2O72-(aq) + HSO3-(aq) Cr3+(aq) + HSO4-(aq) How can we balance this equation?
First Steps: Separate into half-reactions. Balance elements except H and O. Balancing Redox Equation: The Half-Reaction Method Cr2O72-(aq) 2Cr3+(aq) HSO3-(aq) HSO4-(aq) How many electrons are needed to balance the
charge in each half-reaction? Balancing Redox Equation: The Half-Reaction Method Adding electrons: 6e- + Cr2O72-(aq) 2Cr3+(aq) HSO3-(aq) HSO4-(aq) + 2e How can we balance the oxygen atoms? Balancing Redox Equation:
The Half-Reaction Method 6e- + Cr2O72-(aq) Cr3+(aq) + 7H2O H2O + SO32-(aq) + SO42-(aq) + 2e How can we balance the hydrogen atoms? Balancing Redox Equation: The Half-Reaction Method This reaction occurs in an acidic solution. 14H+ + 6e- + Cr2O72- 2Cr3+ + 7H2O H2O + HSO3- HSO4- + 2e- + 2H+
How can we balance the electrons? Balancing Redox Equation: The Half-Reaction Method 14H+ + 6e- + Cr2O72- 2Cr3+ + 7H2O 3[H2O + HSO3- HSO42- + 2e- + 2H+] The final balanced equation: Cr2O72- + 3HSO3- + 8H+ 2Cr3+ + 3HSO4- + 4H2O
Sample Exercises Balance the following redox reactions in acidic solution. 1) Br(aq) + MnO4(aq) Br2(l) + Mn2+(aq) 2) Cr2O72-(aq) + H2O2(aq) Cr3+(aq) + H2O(l) + O2(g) The HalfReaction Method for Balancing Redox Equations in Basic Solution
1. Use the halfreaction method as specified for acidic solutions to obtain the final balanced equation as if H+ ions were present. 2. To both sides of the equation, add a number of OH ions that is equal to the number of H+ ions present. (You want to eliminate H+ by turning is into H2O) 3. Form H2O on the side containing both H+ and OH ions, and eliminate the number of H2O molecules that appear on both sides of the equation.
4. Check that elements and charges are balanced. Sample Exercises Balance the following redox reactions in basic solution: Br2(aq) + OH-(aq) BrO3-(aq) + Br-(aq) + H2O; Cr(OH)4-(aq) + OH-(aq) CrO42-(aq) + H2O; Galvanic Cell
A device in which chemical energy is converted to electrical energy. It uses a spontaneous redox reaction to produce a current that can be used to generate energy or to do work. A Galvanic Cell In Galvanic Cell:
Oxidation occurs at the anode. Reduction occurs at the cathode. Salt bridge or porous disk allows ions to flow without extensive mixing of the solutions. Salt bridge contains a strong electrolyte held in a gellike matrix. Porous disk contains tiny passages that allow hindered flow of ions.
Galvanic Cell Cell Potential A galvanic cell consists of an oxidizing agent (in cathode half-cell) and a reducing agent (in anode half-cell). Electrons flows through a wire from the anode halfcell to the cathode half-cell. The driving force that allows electrons to flow is called the electromotive force (emf) or the cell
potential (Ecell). The unit of electrical potential is volt (V). 1 V = 1 J/C of charge transferred. Standard Reduction Potentials Values of E in standard table of half-cell potentials are for reduction half-cell reactions Table 18.1 (or 17.1) 1 M, 1 atm, 25C
When a half-reaction is reversed, the algebraic sign of E changes. When a half-reaction is multiplied by an integer, the value of E remains the same. A galvanic cell runs spontaneously in the direction that gives a positive value for Ecell Example: Fe3+(aq) + Cu(s) Cu2+(aq) + Fe2+(aq) Half-Reactions:
Fe3+ + e Fe2+ E = 0.77 V Cu2+ + 2e Cu E = 0.34 V To balance the cell reaction and calculate the cell potential, we must reverse reaction 2. Cu Cu2+ + 2e E = 0.34 V
Each Cu atom produces two electrons but each Fe3+ ion accepts only one electron, therefore reaction 1 must be multiplied by 2. 2Fe3+ + 2e 2Fe2+ E = 0.77 V Standard Cell Potential 2Fe3+ + 2e 2Fe2+ ;
E = 0.77 V (cathode) Cu Cu2+ + 2e ; E = 0.34 V (anode) Balanced Cell Reaction: Cu + 2Fe3+ Cu2+ + 2Fe2+ Cell Potential: E Ecell = E(cathode) E(anode)
Ecell = 0.77 V 0.34 V = 0.43 V Calculating Standard Cell Potential Given the following reduction potentials: Ag+(aq) + e- Ag(s); E = 0.80 V Zn2+(aq) + 2e- Zn(s);
E = -0.76 V Calculate the cell potential for the following reaction and predict whether the reaction will take place: Zn(s) + 2Ag+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + 2Ag(s) Standard Cell Potentials Given the following reduction potentials:
Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu(s); E = 0.34 V Ni2+(aq) + 2e- Ni(s); E = -0.23 V
Predict whether the following reaction will take place: Cu(s) + Ni2+(aq) Cu2+(aq) + Ni(s) Cell Notations for Galvanic Cells
Used to describe electrochemical cells. Anode components are listed on the left. Cathode components are listed on the right. Separated by double vertical lines. The concentration of aqueous solutions should be specified in the notation when known.
Example: Mg(s)|Mg2+(aq)||Al3+(aq)|Al(s) Mg Mg2+ + 2e (anode) Al3+ + 3e Al(cathode) Description of a Galvanic Cell The cell potential is always positive for a galvanic cell, where Ecell = E(cathode half-cell) E(anode half-cell) (as given in the table of half-cell potentials)
Anode is the negative terminal and cathode is the positive terminal. Electron flows from the anode (-) to cathode (+). Current flows from cathode(+) to anode(-). Positive ions flows from anode to cathode half-cells and negative ions flows from cathode to anode though the salt bridge.
Designation of Anode and Cathode Write balanced net ionic equation for the spontaneous cell reaction. The oxidizing agent (one with the more positive or less negative reduction potential E) will be the cathode and the other will be the anode. Oxidation occurs in anode half-cell and reduction in cathode half-cell. Anode is negative(-) and cathode is positive(+).
Cell Potential, Free Energy, and Electrical Work Maximum cell potential and free energy Directly related to the free energy difference between the reactants and the products in the cell reaction. G = nFE F = 96,485 C/mol e
Work: In any real, spontaneous process some energy is always lost (wasted) the actual work obtained is always less than the calculated (maximum) value. Concentration Cells Concentration Cell For the concentration cell depicted in the previous
diagram, indicate the anode and cathode half-cell. Calculate the cell potential for the concentration cell depicted in this diagram. Nernst Equation At 25oC. 0.0591 E =E
log Q n 0.0591 E = log K n Cell Potential for Concentration Cells
A concentration cell is set up with one of the halfcells consists of a silver electrode in 1.0 M AgNO3 and other other half-cell contains silver electrode in saturated solution of AgCl (Ksp = 1.6 x 10-10 at 25oC). Calculate the cell potential for the concentration cell. Identify the anode and cathode half-cell. Concentration Cell and Determination of Ksp In another set up of concentration cell, one of the half-cells contains 1.0 M CuSO4 and the other
contains saturated solution of CuCO3. Copper metal is used as electrode in each half-cell. If the cell potential at 25oC is 0.28 V, calculate the concentration of Cu2+ in the saturated solution. What is the Ksp for CuCO3 at 25oC. Lead Storage Battery Nonalkaline Dry Cell
Mercury Battery Fuel Cell Corrosion The process that returns metals to their oxidized state. Involves oxidation of the metal.
Electrochemical Corrosion of Iron Corrosion Prevention Apply coating (such as paint or metal plating) Galvanizing Alloying
Cathodic Protection Protects steel in buried fuel tanks and pipelines. Cathodic Protection Electrolysis A process that forces a current through a cell to produce a chemical change for which the
cell potential is negative. Electrolysis Consider a solution containing 0.10 M of each of the following: Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Sn2+, and Pb2+. Predict the order in which the metals plate out as the voltage is applied. Do the metals form on the cathode or the anode? Explain.
Commercial Electrolytic Processes Production of aluminum
Purification of metals Metal plating Electrolysis of sodium chloride Production of chlorine and sodium hydroxide The Hall-Heroult Process for Al Production Electroplating/Silver Plating a Spoon
The Downs Cell for the Electrolysis of Molten Sodium Chloride The Mercury Cell for Production of Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide
synonyms:*modest*respectful*unassuming . humble:adjective. antonyms: *arrogant *overly proud *rude. It is important to remain humble when we get compliments. The child was not humble when he won the race. Being humble is appreciating others.
John Szabo- LAPL. Susan Luftschein-USC. MarjeSchuetze-Coburn-USC. Ivy Anderson- CA Digital Lib. Annette Marines-Univ of CA Santa Cruz. Martha Hruska-Univ of CA San Diego. Nancy Ennekin- the Getty Museum. Joshua Gomez-the Getty Museum. Angela Riggio-UCLA.
The Deakin University Young Influencer Award is an exciting program available to high-achieving and motivated Year 11 students. Beyond academic results, Deakin values students who want to make a difference in the world.
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