CULTURES REVIEW CH. 4 CULTURE BIG IDEAS Pop Culture vs Folk Culture Material vs. Non-Material Culture Acculturation, Assimilation, Syncretism Cultural Hearths & Regions
Cultural landscape Placelessness, convergence of, Housing Diffusion of culture Time Distance Decay & Time Space Compression WHAT IS CULTURE
The combination of three things Customary beliefs & values Material artifacts Social Forms (political institutions) POPULAR CULTURE VS. FOLK CULTURE Popular Culture
Large, incorporates heterogeneous population Typically urban Experiences quickly changing cultural traits Encompasses clothing, music, dance, food, religious practice, &
aesthetic values. Local Small, incorporates a homogeneous population Typically rural Cohesive in cultural traits MATERIAL VS. NONMATERIAL CULTURE
Material Culture Things that we construct Art, houses, clothing, sports, dance, and foods. Nonmaterial culture The beliefs, aesthetics, and values of a group of people. Your material culture will reflect your nonmaterial culture.
I.E. the Chinese dragon was historically the symbol of the emperor. Currently it is used as the symbol of the Chinese culture. ACCULTURATION When one group of people adopt the cultural traits of another culture. ASSIMILATION
The process by which people lose originally differentiating traits, when they come into contact with another society or culture. I.E. Native Americans 1800s to the 1900s US government wanted to assimilate the indigenous people into the dominate culture SYNCRETISM The blending of traits from two different cultures to make a new culture.
I.E. Most of the traditions we associate with Easter come from early Pagan symbols for Springtime and rebirth. CULTURAL HEARTHS Areas from which important cultural traits originated Mesopotamia Creation of writing, innovations in mathematics & astronomy, & architectural developments (build large temples). The Americas known for building thousands of miles of roads in the
mountains. Legacy is the persistence of Quechua (official language of the Incas); Mayans elaborate pyramids; Aztec complex religious systems, detailed calendar, & an effective bureaucracy. West Africa wealthy empire allowed art, religion, & other components to flourish. CULTURAL HEARTHS - CONTINUED Greco-Roman (Greek) Most remembered for their contributions to
art, philosophy, and science. (Roman) achievements in government, military, engineering, and bureaucracy Indus Valley communal baths, early working drainage system, importance of agriculture. North China domestication of grains, fruits, and vegetables; later dynasty remembered for bronze art, first Chinese writing systems, & well organized political system. Nile River Complex theological, political, and social systems; cultivated a variety of grains & had a complex trade system. Science,
math, and technological influences around the Mediterranean. CULTURAL REGIONS An area that shares a large number of cultural traits I.E. North Africa - Similarities in language and religion CULTURAL LANDSCAPES Refers to the cultural impacts on an area, including
buildings, agricultural patterns, roads, signs, and nearly everything else that humans have created Basically the human impact on an area. How have we changed the landscape? What buildings, statues, and so forth have we erected? Placelessness the loss of uniqueness in a cultural landscape
One place looks like the next. CONVERGENCE OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES Diffusion of architectural forms and planning ideas around the world. Property management companies that have world wide holdings may encourage the same companies
to lease space in all their buildings. Widespread distribution of businesses and products create distinctive landscape stamps around the world. Borrowing of idealized landscape images blurs place distinctiveness Las Vegas Strip Caesar's Palace, Paris, etc.
HOUSING Folk housing Environmental influence available building materials (wood, brick, stone, sod, etc.) Climate & topographic influences Form may derive from religious or other customary beliefs
walls, door orientation, etc.) US style of pioneer homes reflected whatever upscale style was prevailing on the East Coast from where the people migrated. Mid-Atlantic I house. One room deep, two rooms wide Lower Chesapeake/Tidewater one-story, steep roof and chimney at either end New England box shaped with a central hall
HOUSING - CONTINUED Mid 20th Century Display popular culture, rather than regional influences Most houses are mass-produced by construction companies. Show the influence of shapes, materials, detailing, and other features of architectural style in vogue (in the current fashion or style) at any one point in time.
CULTURAL DIFFUSION Cultural traits spread from a point of origin, or hearth. Two ways for diffusion Contagious Hierarchical occurs through a hierarchy of people (Fashion) Designer is the hearth DISTANCE DECAY & TIME-SPACE
COMPRESSION During the past century, the pace of diffusion shrank to months, weeks, days, and in some instances even hours. The spatial extent of diffusion has also expanded Distance Decay likelihood of diffusion decreases with time and distance from the hearth Altered by transportation & communication technologies
Time-Space Compression diffusion depends upon the connectedness of the places. Through modern technologies, major world cities have become more and more connected Create the infrastructure through which innovations diffuse.
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