Chapter 20 REVOLUTIONS IN EUROPE AN LATIN AMERICA 1790-1848 What events proved that Metternich was correct in his fears? What were the causes and effects of the revolutions in Europe in 1830 and 1848? Who were the key revolutionaries to lead the movements for independence in Latin America, and what were their accomplishments? 1 AN AGE OF IDEOLOGIES After the Congress of Vienna, people with opposing ideologies plunged Europe into decades of turmoil. Conservatives, including monarchs, nobles, and church leaders, favored a return to the social order that had existed before 1789. They decided to work

together in an agreement called the Concert of Europe. They wanted to restore the royal families that Napoleon had deposed. They supported a social hierarchy in which lower classes respected and obeyed their social superiors. They also backed established churches and opposed constitutional governments. Conservative leaders such as Prince Metternich of Austria sought to suppress Revolutionary ideas. Inspired by the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, liberals and nationalists challenged conservatives. Liberals included business owners, bankers, lawyers, politicians, and writers. They wanted governments based on written constitutions. Prince Metternich of Austria 2 Nationalism gave people with a common heritage a sense of identity and the goal of creating their own homeland. In the 1800s, national groups within the

Austrian and Ottoman empires set out to create their own states. Rebellions erupted in the Balkans, where there were people of various religions and ethnic groups. The Serbs were the first to revolt. By 1830, Russian support helped the Serbs win autonomy, or self-rule, within the Ottoman empire. In 1821, the Greeks revolted, and by 1830, Greece was independent from the Ottomans. Revolts spread to Spain, Portugal, and Italy. Metternich urged conservative rulers to crush the uprisings. In response, French and Austrian troops smashed rebellions in Spain and Italy. In the next decades, sparks of rebellion would flare anew. Added to liberal and nationalist demands were the goals of the new industrial working class. By the Sparks of rebellion flared in the 1800s 3 REVOLUTIONS OF 1830 AND 1848

When Louis XVIII died in 1824, Charles X inherited the French throne. In 1830, Charles suspended the legislature, limited the right to vote, and restricted the press. Angry citizens, led by liberals and radicals, rebelled and soon controlled Paris. Charles X abdicated. Radicals hoped to set up a republic, but liberals insisted on a constitutional monarchy. Louis Philippe was chosen king. As the citizen king, Louis favored the bourgeoisie, or middle class, over the workers. Louis Philippe The Paris revolts inspired uprisings elsewhere in Europe. Most failed, but the revolutions frightened rulers and encouraged reforms. One notable success was in Belgium, which achieved its independence from Holland in 1831. Nationalists also revolted in Poland in 1830, but they failed to win widespread support. Russian forces crushed the rebels. In the 1840s, discontent began to grow again in France. Radicals, socialists, and liberals denounced Louis Philippes government.

4 When the government tried to silence critics, angry crowds took to the streets in February 1848. The turmoil spread, and Louis Philippe abdicated. A group of liberals, radicals, and socialists proclaimed the Second Republic. By June, the upper and middle classes had won control of the government. Workers again took to the streets of Paris. At least 1,500 people were killed before the government crushed the rebellion. By the end of 1848, the National Assembly issued a constitution for the Second Republic, giving the right to vote to all adult men. When the election for president was held, Louis Napoleon, the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, won. However, by 1852 he had proclaimed himself Emperor Napoleon III. This ended the Second Republic. The revolts in Paris in 1848 again led to revolutions across Europe, especially in the Austrian empire. Revolts broke out in Vienna, and Metternich resigned. In Budapest, Hungarian nationalists led by Louis Kossuth

Napoleon III German states demand 5 REVOLTS IN LATIN AMERICA By the late 1700s, revolutionary fever had spread to Latin America, where the social system had led to discontent. Spanish-born peninsulares, the highest social class, dominated the government and the Church. Many creolesLatin Americans of European descent who owned the haciendas, ranches, and minesresented their second-class status. Mestizos, people of Native American and European descent, and mulattoes, people of African and European descent, were angry at being denied the status, wealth, and power that the other groups enjoyed. The Enlightenment and the French and American revolutions inspired creoles, but they were reluctant to act. However,

when Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808, Latin American leaders decided to demand independence from Spain. Revolution had already erupted in Hispaniola in 1791 when Toussaint LOuverture led a Toussaint LOuverture to 6 bring independence to Haiti In 1810, a creole priest, Father Miguel Hidalgo, called Mexicans to fight for independence. After some successes, he was captured and executed. Father Jos Morelos tried to carry the revolution forward, but he too was captured and killed. Success finally came in 1821 when revolutionaries led by Agustn de Iturbide overthrew the Spanish viceroy and declared independence. Central American colonies soon declared independence, too. In the early 1800s, discontent spread across South America. Simn Bolvar led an uprising in Venezuela. Conservative forces toppled his new republic, but Bolvar did not

give up. In a grueling campaign, he marched his army across the Andes, swooping down into Bogot and taking the city from the surprised Spanish. Then he moved south to free Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. There, he joined forces with another great leader, Jos de San Martn. San Martn helped Argentina and Chile win freedom from Spain. The wars of Father Miguel Hidalgo Dom Pedro 7 Based on this document, identify one situation that led to Haitis declaration of independence from France. 8

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