Ch.25 Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism 1800-1870 Main Idea The Ottoman Empire 1800-1870 Details Started losing control of provinces in 1700s Muhammad Ali seized power in Egypt in 1805. He stopped using Mamaluks and enforced the conscription of Egyptian peasants. Christian Serbia won independence in 1805. Greece won independence in 1829 with help of British, French and Russians.
Sultan Selim III wanted to Ottoman Reform implement European style political, and the European economic and military reforms. Model Janissaries opposed reforms because of fear of losing economic privileges to new military units. The ulama also opposed the secularization of law and taxation. Notemaking Main Idea Details Tanzimat Reform 1839
Mahmud II instituted Tanzimat (reorganization) of legal , education, and military systems. Muslims, Christians, and Jews granted equal protection under the law. Removed religious elite and secularized law, government, education. This only applied to men. Women still subjected to Sharia. Military sent to France for training. Beards viewed as unhygienic . Turbans banned but European hats interfered with prayer, so the Fez was the compromise. French teachers taught the elite and French became the preferred language of the educated and in newspapers.
Notemaking The Fez (dog version) Main Idea Details The Crimean War 1853-1856 Russia wanted to expand southward into Ottoman territory and gain access to Mediterranean. War fought in Romania, the Black Sea and Crimean peninsula. British and French navies helped Ottomans defeat the Russians. Significant for: use of propaganda to get public support for war in
Britain and France, marked transition to modern warfare with use of breech loading rifles. Ottomans in debt to Europeans and European granted extraterritoriality (exemption from local laws) in Instanbul. Tobacco and Opium (taken by Americans to China) only exports. Young Ottomans, political movement of educated urban men inspired by European ideas of nationalism and modernist views of Islam. Aftermath Notemaking Crimean War
Main Idea Details The Russian Empire Russia dominated by nobles and serfs, no middle class. In 1700, only 3 percent of people lived in cities. Agriculturally based, lack of transportation and modernization. Like Ottomans, consisted of many different ethnicities and languages. Nicholas I built first railroad in 1837. Kept peasants in serfdom and imported goods rather than industrialize. Slavophiles wanted
to unite all Slavs (ethnic group) under Pan-Slavism. Tsar Alexander II freed the serfs in 1861. Unlike the United States, which emancipated the slaves around the same time, Russia compensated the serfs. Russia drove South and East establishing a naval post on the Pacific Coast, conquered the Kazaks, Turks, Uzbeks, Armenia and started having conflicts with Russia and Asia Culture Notemaking Opium War
Main Idea Details The Qing Empire Similar problems as Ottomans but no reform movements. Population doubled between 16501800 due to growth of agricultural base. Led to environmental problems, famine and peasant rebellions. Qing hated as foreign conquerors and contacts with Europeans. 1804 White Lotus Rebellion predicted coming of the Buddha and riots continued through 1800s. Unlike Ottomans, Qing considered Europeans remote and only casually
interested in trade. Britain began importing Opium in 1700s and Qing banned it in 1729. Britain considered the ban on opium a threat to their economy and a cause for war. The Opium War (1839-1842) was easily won by the British because their naval forces rendered the bannermen (no guns fought with Economic and Social Disorder 1800-1839 The Opium War and Its Aftermath 1839-1850 Notemaking
Main Idea Details The Treaty of Nanking 1842 Ended the Canton system and opened up five ports for trade. Hong Kong became a British colony. British citizens were granted extraterritoriality and Britain granted most favored nation status. The Taiping Rebellion 18501864 Social unrest and foreign intrusion exploded in the bloodiest civil war
in history (20 million killed). Hong Xiuquan came from humble Hakka origin and suffered a nervous breakdown after failing civil examinations. Christian missionaries inspired him with their teachings and he claimed to be the younger brother of Jesus Christ whose mission was to expel the Manchus and create The Kingdom of Heavenly Peace. Attracted many Hakka followers who denounced Manchus as Satan. Qing troops arrived but Taipings defeated them. Women were forbidden to bind feet Notemaking Taiping Rebellion
Main Idea Details The Taiping Rebellion 18501864 Confucian elites freaked out over foreign gods, totalitarianism and walking, working, warring women. Rebel forces captured Nanking and made it the capital of The Kingdom of Heavenly Peace for ten years. Christian missionaries were horrified by The Kingdoms indulgence and rumored homosexual practices. Britain and France joined the Qings fight against the Taiping rebels. European weaponry and
money helped end the rebellion. Spread of the plague from China into San Francisco in part led to the anti-Chinese immigration act of 1882 in U.S. Empress Dowager Cixi, symbol of corruption, expelled foreigners. Qing treasury was empty, local governors seized power in the provinces, British heavily influenced the emperor. Especially, last Decentralization and End of Qing Notemaking Main Idea Details
Japan 1850-1900 U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry (not the actor) shows up and demands the Japanese open up their ports or else hell blow them away. Japan opens up and decides they need to reform themselves, this movement will be called The Meiji Restoration. Notemaking Pop Quiz
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